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Figure 12 | Geoenvironmental Disasters

Figure 12

From: Key factors influencing the mechanism of rapid and long runout landslides triggered by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, China

Figure 12

The synthesizing process using the three components of the seismic wave to calculate the normal stress increment and shear stress increment acting on the sliding surface. (a) Transfer of the horizontal (EW and NS) acceleration components (aEW (t) and aNS (t)) to slope direction in horizontal plane (aHR (t)); (b) Transfer of the horizontal acceleration component (aHR (t)) along the slope direction and the vertical acceleration component (UD) (aUD (t)) to normal stress component (aNR (t)) and shear stress component (aSH (t)) acting on the sliding surface; (c) Obtaining the initial normal stress and shear stress (σ0, τ0), and the increments of normal stress and shear stress acting (∆σ(t), ∆τ(t)) on the sliding surface by multiplying acceleration and mass of the soil column. δ is the angle between slope direction and the horizontal shaking direction of the earthquake; θ is the slope angle; γ sat is unit weight of the saturated soil layer, and γ t is unit weight of the soil over the groundwater table; H is the depth of sliding mass.

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