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Table 1 Traditional and Local or Indigenous Techniques/methods for Hazards Assessment

From: Mountain hazard susceptibility and livelihood security in the upper catchment area of the river Beas, Kullu Valley, Himachal Pradesh, India

Air photo interpretation and photogrammetry
Traditionally very useful for preliminary assessments, to confirm field evidence and to assess remote areas. Data and sequential photos may be useful in change detection and chronology development.
Use of local and/or indigenous knowledge in inhabited regions, gathered in the field
May be useful in hazard site identification, chronicling of past events, their impacts and characteristics, and identification of useful adjustments and preventive measures.
Use of historical documents, maps, photos, newspapers, travellers’ and surveyors’ diaries and notebooks, books, reports and papers, all usually in library and archival sources
Very important source of general information on an area and its conditions but rarely used by scientists, may be useful in describing and chronicling past hazard events, must be used with care.
  1. Adapted from Gardner and Saczuk (2004)