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Table 3 Peoples' Perceptions Regarding Origin of Hazards

From: Mountain hazard susceptibility and livelihood security in the upper catchment area of the river Beas, Kullu Valley, Himachal Pradesh, India

Hazards/Causes Landslide Floods Avalanche Cloudburst Fire Rock fall Soil erosion Total
1. Deforestation 5 5 3 4 0 4 5 26
2. Slope cutting and construction of Roads 5 0 1 0 0 4 5 15
3. Improper Draining on slopes 3 1 0 0 0 2 5 11
4. Overgrazing 3 0 0 0 -- 3 4 10
5. Steep Slopes 2 1 4 0 0 2 3 12
6. Heavy Snowfall 0 1 5 0 0 1 1 8
7. Glacial Lake Outburst 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 3
8. Heavy Rainfall 5 5 2 3 0 1 4 20
9. Changing Land-uses 2 1 1 2 0 1 2 9
10. Tourism 2 1 1 1 3 2 1 10
11. Faulty Agricultural Practices 1 1 1 1 1 0 2 7
Total 28 17 19 11 4 21 32  
  1. Source: Primary Survey, 2014
  2. Compilation by Researcher