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Table 4 Earthquake-triggered landslide database with information on major contributing factors (ND: no detailed data)

From: A new classification of earthquake-induced landslide event sizes based on seismotectonic, topographic, climatic and geologic factors

Number Country Earthquake M Hypocentral depth Intensity Fault Topo. energy Clim. Factor Litho. factor Number of landslides computed (observed) Affected area (km2) (obs./estimated) References
Americas
1 USA New Madrid (Missouri) 1811 7.50 15.00 0.69 1.50 0.20 1.00 4.00 829 (200 rock falls) 1143 Jibson 1996
2 USA New Madrid (Missouri) 1812 7.80 15.00 1.04 1.50 0.20 1.00 4.00 1247 (ND) 1787 Jibson 1996
3 USA New Madrid (Missouri) 1812 7.30 15.00 0.51 1.50 0.20 1.00 4.00 617 (ND) 827 Jibson 1996
4 USA Charleston (South Carolina) 1886 6.80 12.00 0.26 1.50 0.50 1.00 2.00 384 (ND) 307 Bakun and Hopper 2004
5 USA San Francisco 1906 7.90 15.00 0.58 2.00 1.00 1.00 2.00 2325 (hundreds of landslides or >10,000) 2922 (32,000) Youd and Hoose 1978;
Keefer 1998
6 USA Imperial Valley (California) 1940 7.10 16.00 0.18 1.00 0.50 0.20 2.00 36 (ND) 65 King and Thatcher 1998
7 Canada Vancouver Island 1946 7.25 30.00 0.55 2.00 1.00 1.00 2.00 2210 (numerous scars) 10,196 Mathews 1979
8 USA Puget Sound (Olympia, Seattle) 1949 7.00 70.00 0.11 1.50 1.00 1.00 1.00 168 (several landslides and rockslides) 4715 Chleborad and Schuster 1990
9 USA Daly City (California) 1957 5.30 7.27 0.03 1.50 0.50 1.00 2.00 49 (15 small landslides) 11 Zoback et al. 1999
10 USA Southeast Alaska (Lituya Bay) 1958 7.70 15.00 1.38 2.25 3.00 1.00 1.00 9318 (massive landslide generating a Tsunami) 10,763 Miller 1960
11 USA Montana (Hebgen Lake) 1959 7.10 11.00 1.18 3.00 2.00 1.00 1.00 7064 (huge landslide forming a dam, numerous rockfalls) 3504 Barrientos et al. 1987
12 Chile Chile (Valdivia) 1960 9.50 33.00 3.42 3.00 1.00 0.50 1.00 5126 (massive landslide near Valdivia) 30,619 Weischet 1963
13 USA Alaska (Anchorage) 1964 9.20 25.00 2.84 3.00 3.00 1.00 1.00 25,596 (> > 10,000 landslides) 84,972 (>200,000) Ichinose et al. 2007
Keefer 1984
14 USA Puget Sound (Seattle) 1965 6.50 60.00 0.06 1.50 1.00 1.00 2.00 183 3505 Ichinose et al. 2004
15 USA Parkfield-Cholame (California) 1966 6.20 7.00 0.05 1.00 1.00 0.50 2.00 51 16 Bakun 1972
16 Peru Ancash 1970 7.80 43.00 0.69 3.00 3.00 1.00 2.00 12,502 (>10,000) 104,099 (27,000) Beck and Ruff 1989
17 USA San Fernando (California) 1971 7.10 10.00 0.69 2.00 2.00 0.50 1.00 1388 697 Jennings and Housner 1973
18 Guatemala Guatemala (Motagua) 1976 7.60 10.00 0.84 3.00 2.00 1.00 2.00 10,073 (>10,000) 4420 (16,000) Harp et al. 1981
19 Panama Darien 1976 7.00 5.00 0.16 2.00 1.00 2.00 2.00 1294 160 Garwood et al. 1979
20 Argentina San Juan Province (Caucete) 1977 7.40 17.00 1.33 3.00 2.00 0.20 1.00 1595 1969 Langer and Hartzell 1996
21 USA Santa Barbara (California) 1978 5.60 13.00 0.05 1.50 2.00 1.00 4.00 544 420 Harp et al. 1980
22 USA Homestead Valley (California) 1979 5.20 5.00 0.01 0.50 1.00 1.00 1.00 7 1 Stein and Lisowski 1983
23 USA Coyote Lake (California) 1979 5.40 10.00 0.02 1.00 2.00 1.00 1.00 33 18 Wilson and Keefer 1983
24 USA Mount Diablo (California) 1980 5.80 8.00 0.03 0.50 2.00 1.00 1.00 29 15 Rymer 1987
25 USA Mammoth Lakes (California) 1980 6.10 8.00 0.10 1.50 2.00 1.00 4.00 1173 374 Archuleta et al. 1982
26 USA Coalinga (California) 1983 6.20 7.00 0.11 0.75 2.00 0.20 4.00 136 48 Mavko et al. 1985
27 USA Borah Peak (Idaho) 1983 6.90 10.00 1.03 3.00 2.00 0.50 1.00 3092 1232 Keefer et al. 1985
28 Chile Valparaiso 1985 7.80 43.00 0.69 3.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 2084 17,350 Plafker and Gajardo 1985
29 El Salvador El Salvador (San Salvador) 1986 5.70 12.00 0.05 1.50 2.00 1.00 4.00 636 426 García-Rodríguez et al. 2008
30 Ecuador Ecuador (N. Reventador) 1987 (March 6 4:10 GMT) 7.10 17.00 0.61 2.00 2.00 2.00 4.00 19,500 28,292 Schuster et al. 1996
31 Ecuador El Napo (Quito-Tulcan) 1987 (March 6 1:54 GMT) 6.40 5.00 0.07 2.00 2.00 1.00 4.00 1094 124 Schuster et al. 1996
32 USA Whittier Narrows (California) 1987 6.10 17.00 0.09 0.75 0.50 1.00 1.00 32 66 Harp and Wilson 1995
33 USA Superstition Hills (California) 1987 6.20 5.00 0.05 1.00 0.50 0.20 4.00 21 3 Harp and Wilson 1995
34 Canada Saguenay (Quebec) 1988 5.80 28.00 0.07 2.25 1.00 2.00 4.00 1243 3767 Syvitski and Schafer 1996
35 USA Loma Prieta (California) 1989 7.10 18.00 0.72 2.25 1.00 1.00 2.00 3219 (2000) 4937 (conc. = 2000; total = 15,000) Keefer 1998
36 Costa Rica Costa Rica (Limon) 1990 7.10 24.00 0.60 2.25 2.00 1.00 2.00 5406 14,738 Ponce et al. 2010
37 Costa Rica Valle de la Estrella 1991 7.50 21.50 1.09 2.25 1.00 2.00 4.00 19,695 45,520 Goes et al. 1993
38 USA Cape Mendocino 1992 (California) (*2) 7.00 17.00 0.32 1.50 2.00 1.00 1.00 966 1596 González et al. 1995
39 Colombia Murindo 1992 6.70 14.00 0.10 1.00 1.00 2.00 4.00 808 1061 Mosquera-Machado et al. 2009
40 USA Klamath Falls (Oregon) 1993 5.90 11.00 0.07 0.75 1.00 1.00 1.00 53 44 Qamar 1995
41 Colombia Paez 1994 6.80 12.00 0.26 1.50 2.00 2.00 4.00 6137 4907 Martinez et al. 1995
42 USA Northridge (California) 1994 6.70 12.00 0.74 3.00 2.00 1.00 2.00 8833 (11,000) 4920 (10,000) Harp and Jibson 1996
43 Colombia Tauramena 1995 6.50 20.00 0.15 1.50 4.00 2.00 1.00 1765 3746 Dimate et al. 2003
44 El Salvador El Salvador (San Miguel) 2001 (January 13) 7.70 60.00 0.43 1.50 1.00 1.00 4.00 2560 (>1000) 57,950 Evans and Bent 2004
45 USA Denaly (Alaska) 2002 7.90 10.00 1.50 4.00 2.00 1.00 1.00 12,037 (thousands) 4754 (30 km band along surface rupture) Eberhart-Phillips et al. 2003
46 Mexico Colima 2003 7.60 24.00 0.35 2.00 2.00 1.00 4.00 5639 (several thousands) 17,455 (8000) Keefer et al. 2006
47 Chile Aysen 2007 6.20 10.00 0.05 1.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 304 (hundreds) 188 (~1200) Hermanns et al. 2014
48 Peru Pisco 2007 8.00 39.00 1.27 4.50 0.50 0.20 1.00 570 (866) 3269 Tavera et al. 2009
49 Chile Pelluhue 2010 8.80 31.00 2.67 4.50 1.00 1.00 1.00 12,024 47,935 Lin et al. 2013
50 Chile Pichilemu 2010 6.90 39.00 0.27 4.50 1.00 1.00 1.00 1222 6045 Farías et al. 2011
51 Haiti Haiti (Port-au-Prince) 2010 7.10 10.00 0.86 2.25 2.00 1.00 2.00 7754 (5000) 3670 (2000) Theilen-Willige 2010; Gorum et al. 2013
52 Chile Araucania 2011 7.10 17.00 0.73 2.25 1.00 1.00 2.00 3307 4523 Hicks and Rietbrock 2015
53 USA Virginia, NE USA 2011 5.80 6.00 0.07 0.75 0.50 1.00 2.00 49 12 Jibson and Harp 2012
Asia and Oceania
54 Kyrgyzstan Kemin 1911 7.80 25.00 1.12 4.00 2.00 0.50 1.00 4495 (hundreds) 5408 Delvaux et al. 2001; Havenith et al. 2002
55 China Haiyuan 1920 8.50 15.00 2.28 4.00 1.00 1.00 4.00 36,537 (thousands) 17,469 (15,000) Zhang and Wang 2007
56 Tajikistan Khait 1949 7.50 18.00 1.41 3.00 2.00 1.00 2.00 16,906 (several giant landslides and flows) 16,772 Evans et al. 2009; Havenith and Bourdeau 2010
57 India Assam 1950 8.60 14.00 2.76 4.50 3.00 2.00 1.00 74,424 (thousands, > 10,000) 34,143 (15,000) Kingdon-Ward 1955
Mathur 1953; Keefer 1984
58 Russia Altai 1957 8.10 30.00 1.18 3.00 2.00 0.50 2.00 7077 17,197 Lunina et al. 2008;
Rogozhin et al. 2003
59 Tajikistan Gissar 1989 5.50 5.00 0.04 0.75 1.00 2.00 4.00 261 (several large slides) 59 Ishihara et al. 1990
60 Philippines Luzon 1990 7.70 25.00 0.82 1.50 2.00 2.00 2.00 9794 (hundreds) 31,422 (3000) Arboleda and Punongbayan 1991; Velasco et al. 1996
61 Iran Manjil 1990 7.30 19.00 0.79 2.00 2.00 0.50 1.00 1575 (hundreds) 2075 Shoaei and Sassa 1993
62 Kyrgyzstan Suusamyr 1992 7.20 27.00 0.64 2.25 2.00 0.20 1.00 576 (tens) 1646 (2000) Ghose et al. 1997; Mellors et al. 1997; Havenith et al. 2015a, b
63 Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinea 1993 6.90 19.00 0.51 2.25 2.00 1.00 2.00 4622 (5000) 6267 Meunier et al. 2008
64 Taiwan Chi-Chi 1999 7.60 12.00 1.69 3.00 3.00 1.00 2.00 30,382 (22,000) 13,574 (10,000) Keefer 2002;
Khazai and Sitar 2003
65 Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan Hindukush 2002 I 7.40 226.00 0.03 1.50 4.00 0.50 2.00 178 (activation of large distant landslides) 54,843 (landslides at >500 km distance) Yeats and Madden 2003;
Niyazov and Nurtaev 2010;
Niyazov and Nurtaev 2013;
Niyazov and Nurtaev 2014;
Torgoev et al. 2013
66 Tajikistan Hindukush 2002 II 6.10 15.00 0.09 1.50 4.00 0.50 2.00 536 (reactivtions) 601 Niyazov and Nurtaev 2010; Niyazov and Nurtaev 2013; Niyazov and Nurtaev 2014; Torgoev et al. 2013
67 Russia Altai 2003 7.30 18.00 0.81 2.00 2.00 0.50 2.00 3221 (hundreds) 3809 (3000) Lunina et al. 2008;
Rogozhin et al. 2003
68 Japan Chuetsu 2004 6.60 13.00 0.19 1.50 2.00 1.00 2.00 1135 (tens) 1033 Kieffer et al. 2006
69 Pakistan Kashmir 2005 7.70 15.00 1.74 3.00 3.00 1.00 1.00 15,616 (thousands) 11,045 (5000) Petley et al. 2006;
Dunning et al. 2007
70 Japan Chuetsu 2007 6.60 17.00 0.18 1.50 2.00 1.00 2.00 1074 1672 Cirella et al. 2008;
Collins et al. 2012
71 China Wenchuan 2008 7.90 17.00 1.96 6.00 4.00 2.00 1.00 93,883 (60,000 – 200,000) 43,753 (35,000 – 100,000) Gorum et al. 2011;
Shen et al. 2015
72 Japan Iwate–Miyagi Nairiku 2008 7.20 8.00 1.02 2.25 2.00 1.00 2.00 9140 (>4000) 2292 Ohta et al. 2008;
Yagi et al. 2009
73 Indonesia Sumatra 2009 7.60 71.00 0.29 1.50 0.50 2.00 2.00 883 (89) 27,614 Umar et al. 2014
74 Japan Tohoku 2011 9.00 30.00 2.36 3.00 1.00 0.50 3.00 10,632 (3477) 35,157 (28380) Koketsu et al. 2011;
Wartman et al. 2013
75 China Lushan 2013 7.00 13.00 0.34 1.50 3.00 0.50 2.00 1523 (>1000) 1802 (2200) Chen et al. 2014
76 Nepal Nepal 2015 7.80 18.00 1.44 4.50 3.00 0.50 2.00 19,435 (thousands) 13,368 Collins and Jibson 2015
77 Afghanistan Hindukush 2015 7.50 213.00 0.04 1.50 4.00 2.00 2.00 944 (hundreds) 262,381 USGS 2015a, b; Petley 2015
78 Tajikistan Pamir 2015 7.20 28.00 0.54 2.00 3.00 0.50 1.00 1618 4567 USGS 2015a, b
Europe
79 Italy Calabria 1783? 7.00 15.00 1.02 3.00 2.00 0.50 1.00 3048 (215 dammed lakes) 2772 (several hundreds) Jacques et al. 2001
80 Romania Vrancea (Romania) 1802 7.90 150.00 0.15 1.50 1.00 0.50 2.00 223 (dozens) 39,649 Georgescu 2003
81 Romania Vrancea (Romania) 1838 7.50 150.00 0.08 1.50 1.00 0.50 2.00 113 19072 Constantin et al. 2011
82 Italy S. Apennines Irpinia 1930 6.70 14.60 0.66 3.00 2.00 0.50 2.00 3988 (several large landslides) 3288 Tranfaglia et al. 2011
83 Romania Vrancea 1940 7.70 150.00 0.05 1.50 1.00 1.00 2.00 136 26,721 Bălteanu et al. 1997;
Radu and Spânoche 1977
84 Italy Valle del Belice (Sicilia) 1968 6.12 17.50 0.09 1.50 1.00 0.50 2.00 132 202 Monaco et al. 1996
85 Italy Friuli 1976 6.50 15.00 0.16 0.75 3.00 1.00 1.00 358 (~100) 605 Govi 1977
86 Romania Vrancea 1977 7.40 94.00 0.14 1.50 1.00 0.50 2.00 211 13,793 Mândrescu (1981)
86 Italy Irpinia (Campania) 1980 6.90 10.00 0.64 2.25 1.00 1.00 2.00 2891 1330 Bernard and Zollo 1989
87 Greece Kalamata (S. Greece) 1986 6.00 28.00 0.03 1.00 1.00 0.50 2.00 32 152 Anagnostopoulos et al. 1987
88 Armenia Spitak 1988 6.70 10.00 0.79 3.00 1.00 0.50 4.00 4741 1297 Rodriguez et al. 1999
89 Greece Killini (W. Greece) 1988 5.90 25.00 0.03 0.50 1.00 0.50 1.00 7 38 Lazaridou-Varotsos 2013
90 Georgia Racha 1991 7.00 17.00 0.63 2.25 2.00 0.50 2.00 2844 (hundreds) 3132 (3000) Jibson et al. 1994
91 Spain SW Montefrio (Loja, S. Spain) 1991 2.60 5.00 0.00 1.50 1.00 0.50 1.00 3 0,16 Delgado et al. 2011
92 Turkey Erzincan (E. Turkey) 1992 6.70 27.00 0.09 1.00 3.00 0.50 2.00 272 1329 Erdik et al. 1994
93 Italy Umbria-Marche 1997 6.00 5.00 0.09 0.75 1.00 1.00 2.00 130 (>100) 23 Esposito et al. 2000
94 Slovenia Posocje 1998 5.60 6.00 0.02 0.50 3.00 1.00 2.00 67 (100 slope failures) 19 Mikoš et al. 2013
95 Italy Palermo 2002 5.89 10.00 0.07 3.00 2.00 0.50 2.00 427 145 Azzaro et al. 2004
96 Italy Molise (Abruzzi) 2002 5.78 30.00 0.02 1.00 2.00 0.50 2.00 46 237 Bozzano et al. 2004
97 Greece Lefkada (W. Greece) 2003 6.30 12.00 0.06 0.50 2.00 0.50 1.00 29 (several) 37 Papadopoulos et al. 2003
98 Italy L’Aquila (Abruzzi) 2009 5.80 11.00 0.06 0.75 2.00 0.50 1.00 46 (several) 38 Cheloni et al. 2014
99 Italy Emilia 2012 6.00 7.50 0.09 0.75 2.00 0.50 2.00 128 50 Martino et al. 2014
100 Greece Cephalonia (W. Greece) 2014 5.80 16.00 0.03 0.50 3.00 0.50 2.00 41 87 Valkaniotis et al. 2014