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Table 4 Soil Parameters applied in numerical model

From: The deformation of retaining piles and ground surface under various support systems during deep excavation

Layer Soil group Thickness (m) Weight density (kN/m3) Cohesion (kPa) Friction angle (°) Shear modulus (MPa) Bulk modulus (MPa)
1 Miscellaneous fill 2.30 17.50 7.00 10.00 4.48 12.50
2 Silty clay 2.70 17.90 22.00 11.00 3.98 9.72
3 Fill 5.00 17.80 24.00 11.60 4.55 11.11
4 Clay 10.00 19.30 75.00 11.80 13.64 33.33
5 Sandstone 20.00 24.00 140.00 30.00 1200.00 2000.00