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Table 1 Characteristics of soil medium

From: Influence of the topographic effect on the seismic response of buried pipelines

Rock type R1 R2 R3 R4
Description shale shale tuff tuff
Cohesion C (kPa) 30 36 31 32
Internal friction angle ϕ (deg.) 27 30 30 32
Modulus of elasticity E (Pa) 1.00E+ 9 2.02E+ 9 3.15E+ 9 4.27E+ 9
Mass density (kg/m3) 2200 2250 2320 2350
Poisson ratio υ 0.28 0.28 0.27 0.26
Dilatant angle  φ (deg.) 2 3 4 4
Shear wave velocity (m/s) 421 592 731 849