A successful case of emergency landslide response - the Sept. 2, 2014, Shanshucao landslide, Three Gorges Reservoir, China
© Huang et al. 2015
Received: 22 December 2014
Accepted: 10 July 2015
Published: 28 July 2015
The Shanshucao landslide is a bedding landslide in the Three Gorges Reservoir. This landslide had not been subject to obvious deformation in the past, nor had it been included in the list of geologic hazards previously identified in the Three Gorges Reservoir.
The Shanshucao slope failed at 13:19 p.m. on Sep. 2, 2014, during which the northern soil mass slid rotationally on a plane under traction produced by the rocky bedding landslide to the south. The Daling Hydropower Station was situated on the Shanshucao landslide, and power generation pipelines feeding the station began leaking four hours before the incident. Heavy rainfall, fluctuation of water level in the reservoir, and leakage of tunnel pipelines caused a sharp increase of hydraulic uplift pressure within the slope. This was the key trigger of the incident.
Before the incident, members of the public reported timely clues on slope deformation, and landslide specialists and governmental officials made prompt collaborative decisions that contributed to a successful emergency evacuation of the landslide site. As a consequence, all residents living on the slope evacuated successfully before the occurred. This successful case of emergency landslide evacuation provides guidance for dealing with unexpected geologic hazards in the Three Gorges Reservoir, and in other disaster-prone regions world-wide.
Emergency survey show that the Shanshucao landslide is a bedding landslide, the northern soil mass slipped rotationally on a plane under traction produced by the rocky bedding landslide to the south. Heavy rainfall, raise of water level in the reservoir, and leakage of tunnel pipelines inside the slope caused a sharp increase of hydraulic uplift pressure within the slope. This was the key trigger of the landslide. Members of the public reported timely clues on slope deformation, and landslide specialists and governmental officials made prompt collaborative decisions that contributed to a successful emergency evacuation of this landslide. The MEWNG shows its powerful ability to deal with emergency landslide.
The Three Gorges Project stands as the largest hydropower engineering in the world, Since the 1950s, when experts first argued for its development, extensive efforts have been made on investigation, survey, prevention, and control of geologic hazards. The geohazards in the Three Gorges Reservoir are characterized by their extensive distibution, considerable influence, and high activity. To combat these features, the Three Gorges Reservoir has seen the establishment of a monitoring and early warning network of geohazards known as MEWNG. This network is composed of observations from the local people, an established preparedness system, a professional monitoring system, and an information management and early warning command system (Li 2000, 2002). This network effectively combines the efforts of the local people, geohazard specialists, and governmental officials. Slope information collected from periodic monitoring is reported to the specialists by the local populace, providing clues to work efficiently, and to draw firmly-based conclusions. Government officials then make decisions based on this information. This system radically broadens the vision of the geohazard specialists, and increases the scientific basis of government emergency response decisions. The MEWNG has been shown to be effective in dealing with unexpected landslides, as demonstrated by previous examples in the Xintan landslide and the Wangxia rockfall (Luo 1986, Wang 1996, Le et al. 2011).
The Shanshucao slope is located in Zigui County in Three Gorges Reservoir. It is a newborn bedding landslide, which failed on Sep. 2, 2014. This landslide has aroused considerable concern, as it destroyed a small local hydropower station. This was the first instance of significant damage to a hydropower station in the Three Gorges Reservoir from landslide. Fortunately, no casualties or injuries occurred, due to prompt evacuation before the failure. This was a successful case of geohazard emergency response in the Three Gorges Reservoir, facilitated by the MEWNG system. This paper describes the landslide process, the triggering factors involved, and the successful operation of MEWNG, providing guidance for emergency responses to unexpected geohazards in the Three Gorges Reservoir, and in other regions around the world.
An overview of the Shanshucao slope
The Shanshucao slope is situated downstream of Daling Village, and can be divided into two parts according to the composition of its shallow materials. The southern part is composed primarily of bedded bedrock, whereas the northern is covered by a 1–10 m thickness of soil. Lithologically, the bedrock belongs to the Niejiashan Formation of Jurassic Age (J2n), which consists mainly of greyish-green thickly-bedded sandstones in its upper part, and purple to red medium-bedded sandstones interbedded with silty mudstones in its lower part. In this area the Niejiashan Formation has a strike of 115° and a dip of 20°. The soil mass is composed mostly of eluvium consisting of sandstone gravels. With a bedding structure, the slope aspect is 105°, and the average slope angle is 21°, similar to the dip of the bedrock. Vegetation is extensively developed on the slope. The rocky slope is mainly covered by cedar trees, whereas the soil slope is occupied by citrus trees. A small platform is present at an elevation of 300 m. The top of the slope lies at an elevation of 425 m, where it forms a divide between the Qinggan and Luogudong Rivers.
As specified in relevant Chinese laws, prudent site selection and environmental impact assessment must be conducted prior to commencing construction of any hydropower station. Site selection and subsequent construction of the Daling Hydropower Station therefore meant it was recognized as stable by many experts. Consequently, this slope was not included in the database of local geohazards, as it was assumed to be safe. Although there had been no visible deformation in the Shanshucao slope in the past, the orientation of the Shanshucao slope and dip of the basement offered potential for structural sliding. This slope could thus be regarded as an overlooked potential landslide. This potential was realized by the Shanshucao landslide, which occurred quite suddenly at 13:19 p.m. on Sept. 2, 2014.
Landslide process & emergency disposal process
At around 13:05 p.m., it was concluded from preliminary investigation that the forebay and tunnel pipelines had been destroyed by deformation of the slope, resulting in penetration of a considerable volume of water into the slope; this water then seeped through rock mass fissures. Intensified deformation and abrupt outflow of underground water suggested that the slope was actively deforming. At that time, more and more visible fractures appeared in the south side of the Highway G348, and the northern road began to bulge intactly, indicating that global deformation as occurring. In light of the requirements of the MEWNG in the Three Gorges Reservoir, and after discussion with the geological engineers on-site, the heads of the Shazhenxi Government took the following emergency measures: 1) immediate shut-down of the far-end (uphill) water pumping system to cut off the water flow into the slope; 2) informed the power supply authorities to suspend power supply, to prevent risks associated with destruction of the hydropower station; 3) classify alert zones based on geomorphic conditions, and assign the incident with an orange alert level (inferior only to the red alert level represented by intense deformation); 4) promptly organize all the residents to evacuate from the area, and close all relevant roads in the area; 5) dispatch two technical groups to conduct emergency investigations and to delineate the extent of the landslide: one group was responsible for observing deformation on the lateral margin along Highway G348, while the other was sent to observe deformation of the upper slope along the Dengjiawang Road and at higher elevation, to locate the head of the landslide.
At 13:19 a.m., the slope slid rapidly as a whole. At this time, the technicians dispatched to the peak were still on the Daling slope, but had not arrived at the head of the landslide, and fortunately they escaped injury. The Shanshucao slope slid for approximately 2 min or so, with a loud crash and emission of a cloud of dust. Sporadic rockfalls were observed at the lateral margin and trailing edge of the slope following the main sliding.
After the landslide, a prompt emergency investigation was organized to determine whether the landslide would tend to expand, and movement resume. Meanwhile, the governmental officials sent relevant personnel to check whether there was anyone had been injured or killed by the landslide. By 14:15 p.m., the officials had ascertained that there had been no injuries or fatalities, and they then adjusted the landslide alert level to red. Under a red alert, the landslide is regarded as being under intense deformation, landslide hazard could threat to the safety of life and property around the immediate area of the slide in the next 24 hours, and crowd and traffic control should be carried out for at least the next 24 hours. At 14:16 p.m., the chief engineer reported this landslide incident to superiors in the technical management agency, the Bureau of Land Resources of Yichang City, and the Geo-Hazard Command Center of the Three Gorges Reservoir, and also requested additional technical support. A fully-automated displacement monitor was then installed to perform monitoring on the landslide mass and its surrounding areas. In the meantime, many experts rushed to the site to examine deformation of the landslide. At this stage, the professional monitoring and consultation phase of the landslide had begun.
Losses associated with the landslide
The general sliding direction of the Shanshucao landslide was about 105°. Because of the blockage of ridge, the direction of the rocky slide mass shifted from 105° to 75° around the zone of the foot (Fig. 10). According to the observed slide time of about 2 minutes and the maximum sliding distance of about 117 m, based on Newton’s Laws of Motion it can be simply estimated that the maximum speed of movement of the rocky landslide was about 2 m/s.
Trigger mechanism of the landslide
As the northern soil mass was drawn by the traction of the southern rocky sliding mass, only the trigger mechanism of the southern rocky mass is discussed here.
Under the conditions of intense rain and rapid rise of the water level, the Shashucao landslide began to deform slowly. In this case, if there had been no pressure pipe on the Shashucao slope, the slide perhaps may not have occurred. Gentle deformation of the slope would have generated deformation of the structure inside the slope. This is the reason why the forebay and tunnel pipelines deformed. Once water began to leak leaking from these structures, a large volume of water could enter the mass, leading to the great changes of groundwater and forces within the landslide mass. The water originally used for power generation had a high head of pressure and large flow. When entering into sliding surface through the fissure network, the water generated high groundwater uplift pressure on the bottom of the surface of rupture, and finally initiated the rapid sliding of the slope (Fan et al. 2009, Brönnimann 2011).
Only several hours elapsed between the appearance of visible deformation of the Shanshucao slope to the official decision to evacuate. The rapid increase of the displacement of the fissure on Highway G348 road was the main reason which led to the prompt official decision. Although the detailed boundary of the landslide was not clear at that stage, the displacement became more larger and larger in a very short time, which showed that the slope was deforming rapidly and had the tendency to fail. Under these conditions, an official decision was needed to deal with the emergency, without delay. If routine practice had been followed, by first ascertaining the scale and extent of landslide, and then making the official decision, action would have been delayed, and casualties would almost certainly have resulted.
An early official evacuation decision was also made before the Qianjiangping landslide (Fig. 1), which occurred in July 13th, 2003. Between June 27th and July 4th of that year, fissures appeared in the crown and the middle part of the Qiangjiangping landslide. In these eight days, the relative displacement of the fissure reached about 4 ~ 6 cm. The official decision of evacuation was at 21:40 p.m in 12th, 2003, when the ground of the front platform of the Qianjiangping landslide began to bulge, and loud underground noises could be heard.
In neither of these two landslides was any professional monitoring work carried out before they failed. These two official evacuation decisions were made based on qualitative judgements of the imminent potential for landslide. These judgements depended on the experience of the engineering geologists who were on-site. If professional monitoring data is available, observation of the acceleration of deformation can be used to quantitatively evaluate the potential for landslide. An example of the use of such data is given by the Wangxia rockmass which is located in the Wu Gorges of the Three Gorges Reservior. Acceleration of deformation was detected by monitoring on 21st Oct, 2010, This data helped in the successful issuing of a warning before mass movement occurred.
In short, most official evacuation decisions depend on informed judgments from engineering geologists, on the potential for imminent failure of landslides.
Shanshucao landslide is a bedding landslide with a volume of 465,000 m3. The translational slide of the rocky mass led the lateral soil mass to slide rotationally on the surface of rupture. The southern flank boundary of the rocky mass was a pre-existing structural plane.
Intense rain and rapid raise of water level led the Shashucao landslide to deform slowly. Leakage of tunnel pipelines produced a high uplift pressure, which was the key trigger of the slide.
The keys to the successful emergency evacuation of the Shanshucao landslide lie in timely reports by the local people, and collaborative decisions made by landslide specialists and government officials. This landslide crisis was solved successfully by the MEWNG system that operates in the Three Gorges Reservoir.
Establishment of warning systems similar to MEWNG is recommended for geological disaster-prone areas around the world.
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (ID: 41372321), and the China Geological Survey Geo-hazard project (ID: 12120114079301). The authors would like to thank Prof. Barry Roser and Prof. Wang Fawu which made great effort to improve this paper, and also several anonymous reviewers are appreciated.
- Brönnimann CS (2011) Effect of Groundwater on Landslide Triggering. The thesis for Ph.D. Laboratory of Engineering and Environmental Geology, EPF Lausanne, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
- Fan X, Xu Q, Zhang Z, Meng D, Tang R (2009) The genetic mechanism of a translational landslide. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment 68(2):231–244View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- He K, Wang S, Du W, Wang S (2009) Dynamic features and effects of rainfall on landslides in the Three Gorges Reservoir region, China: using the Xintan landslide and the large Huangya landslide as the examples. Environmental Earth Sciences 59(6):1267–1274Google Scholar
- Le Q, Wang H, Xue X, Gao Y, Jin X, Zhang J, Pan S (2011) Deformation monitoring and failure mechanism of wangxia dangerous rock mass in wushan county. Chinese Journal of Engineering Geology 19(6):823–831Google Scholar
- Li L (2000) The construction on geological disaster pre-warning system with the Chinese characteristics. Geology in China 4:6–8Google Scholar
- Li L (2002) Landslide’s prevention and control in the Yangtze gorges reservoir area in China. Land & Resource 4:4–7Google Scholar
- Luo P (1986) The deformation and emergency forecasting on Xintan landslide. Chinese Bulletin of Soil and Water Conservation 4:40–45Google Scholar
- Miller S, Brewer T, Harris N (2009) Rainfall thresholding and susceptibility assessment of rainfall-induced landslides: application to landslide management in St Thomas, Jamaica. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment 68(4):539–550View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Singh Y, Bhat GM, Sharma V, Pandita SK, Thakur KK (2012) Reservoir induced landslide at Assar, Jammu and Kashmir: a case study. Journal Geological Society of India 80:435–439View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang S (1996) Review on prediction of Xintan landslide. The Chinese Journal of Geological Hazard and Control 7(S):11–19Google Scholar
- Wang FW, Zhang Y, Huo ZT, Tatsunori M, Huang BL (2004) The July 14, 2003 Qianjiangping landslide, Three Gorges Reservoir, China. Landslides 1:157–162View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited.