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Table 4 Forecasts of erosion volumes, roadside maintenance volumes and damaged agricultural surfaces, and direct costs for the total road network of the watershed assuming constant annual indexes and exponential roads increase trend

From: Rural earthen roads impact assessment in Phewa watershed, Western region, Nepal

Year Total watershed earthen road network length (km) Cumulative value for erosion event volume release (m3) Damaged areas
Cumulative value for volume to remove or repair (m3) Cumulative value for agriculture land lost surface (m2) Cumulative value for cost of damaged areas with Mixed maintenance (USD)
2014 310 166982 46835 89445 117287
2015 318 167732 47130 90096 118165
2016 328 168732 47524 90965 119337
2017 354 171307 48539 93202 122355
2018 382 174087 49634 95617 125612
2019 412 177088 50816 98224 129128
2020 445 180327 52092 101038 132924
2021 480 183823 53469 104075 137020
2022 518 187597 54956 107353 141442
2023 559 191670 56561 110891 146215
2024 604 196067 58293 114711 151366
2025 652 200813 60162 118833 156927
2026 703 205935 62180 123283 162929
2027 759 211465 64358 128086 169408
2028 820 217433 66710 133271 176401
2029 885 223875 69247 138867 183949
2030 955 230829 71987 144908 192097
  1. The 2014 values were calculated for the total watershed area using the amounts characterized on 42 % of roads network considering homogenous erosional conditions in the watershed. Following year values are cumulative